Philosophy critical thinking about foundational beliefs

As a field of study, Logic teaches the rules for correct and proper reasoning. In formulating rules for correct thinking, for instance, Logic does not do it arbitrarily but deduces those rules from general principles. As an art, Logic is an act of the mind which directs one to create or formulate thought-provoking works like agreeable reasons or explanations. So as the fine arts direct a person to produce a beautiful painting or sculpture, Logic leads one to generate sensible and sound arguments.

Philosophy critical thinking about foundational beliefs

Answers to this question often focus on the role of culture or upbringing. While these influences are important, new research suggests that whether we believe may also have to do with how much we rely on intuition versus analytical thinking.

In Amitai Shenhav, David Rand and Joshua Greene of Harvard University published a paper showing that people who have a tendency to rely on their intuition are more likely to believe in God.

Building on these findings, in a recent paper published in Science, Will Gervais and Ara Norenzayan of the University of British Columbia found that encouraging people to think analytically reduced their tendency to believe in God.

Together these findings suggest that belief may at least partly stem from our thinking styles.

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Understanding these two ways, which are often referred to as System 1 and System 2, may be important for understanding our tendency towards having religious faith. System 1 thinking relies on shortcuts and other rules-of-thumb while System 2 relies on analytic thinking and tends to be slower and require more effort.

Solving logical and analytical problems may require that we override our System 1 thinking processes in order to engage System 2. Psychologists have developed a number of clever techniques that encourage us to do this.

Using some of these techniques, Gervais and Norenzayan examined whether engaging System 2 leads people away from believing in God and religion.

Participants who viewed The Thinker reported weaker religious beliefs on a subsequent survey. However, Gervais and Norenzayan wondered if showing people artwork might have made the connection between thinking and religion too obvious.

Philosophy critical thinking about foundational beliefs

In their next two studies, they created a task that more subtly primed analytic thinking. Participants received sets of five randomly arranged words e. Some of their participants were given scrambled sentences containing words associated with analytic thinking e. After unscrambling the sentences, participants filled out a survey about their religious beliefs.

In both studies, this subtle reminder of analytic thinking caused participants to express less belief in God and religion. Analytic thinking reduced religious belief regardless of how religious people were to begin with. In a final study, Gervais and Norenzayan used an even more subtle way of activating analytic thinking: Prior research has shown that difficult-to-read font promotes analytic thinking by forcing participants to slow down and think more carefully about the meaning of what they are reading.

The researchers found that participants who filled out a survey that was printed in unclear font expressed less belief as compared to those who filled out the same survey in the clear font.

These studies demonstrate yet another way in which our thinking tendencies, many of which may be innate, have contributed to religious faith.Philosophical Foundation argues for clarity over and against meaninglessness, which is implicit in various forms of skepticism and fideism.

Throughout the book, critical analysis is applied to unexamined assumptions in the areas of metaphysics and ethics in order to address long-standing disputes. Critical Thinking in Every Domain of Knowledge and Belief. to make your thinking the object of thought; to make your behavior the object of your thinking; to make your beliefs the object of your thinking.

For example, take your religious thinking: All over the world there are very many religious belief systems. Critical Thinking in. Basic belief.

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Jump to navigation Jump to search. Basic beliefs (also commonly called foundational beliefs or core beliefs) are, under the epistemological view called foundationalism, the axioms of a belief system. [example needed Categories of beliefs. Foundationalism. Berkeley, CA — "Good morning!

My remarks center this morning on critical thinking in every domain of knowledge and belief. And my subtext is something like this. CHMN (CHM ) - Intro to Church Ministries. A practical study of Church Ministry with emphasis given to its biblical foundation, philosophy of ministry, and the various areas of ministry.

The Socratic Method Research Portal is the product of over 30 years of research and experimentation with the Socratic method.

Philosophy of Education (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)