Measurement[ edit ] Temperature profile of the surface layer of the ocean a at night and b during the day There are a variety of techniques for measuring this parameter that can potentially yield different results because different things are actually being measured. Away from the immediate sea surface, general temperature measurements are accompanied by a reference to the specific depth of measurement. This is because of significant differences encountered between measurements made at different depths, especially during the daytime when low wind speed and high sunshine conditions may lead to the formation of a warm layer at the ocean's surface and strong vertical temperature gradients a diurnal thermocline. Benjamin Franklin suspended a mercury thermometer from a ship while travelling between the United States and Europe in his survey of the Gulf stream in the late eighteenth century.
Every year more than 20 questions are asked from Environment. Prelims Questions are solved with detailed explanation in An examination of the phenomenon el nino. General Studies 1 geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features including water bodies and ice-caps and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
Environment Based Questions asked under Geography GS I Mains Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata are the three mega cities of the country but the air pollution is much more serious problem in Delhi as compared to the other two.
Why is this so? India is well endowed with fresh water resources. Critically examine why it still suffers from water scarcity.
The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand are reaching the limits of their ecological carrying capacity due to tourism.
How far do you agree that the behavior of the Indian monsoon has been changing due to humanizing landscapes? What are the economic significances of discovery of oil in Arctic Sea and its possible environmental consequences? General Studies 3 Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
How is it different from any other hydroelectricity project? What are the consequences of illegal mining? Enumerate the National Water Policy of India. Taking river Ganges as an example, discuss the strategies which may be adopted for river water pollution control and management.
What are the legal provisions for management and handling of hazardous wastes in India? Should the pursuit of carbon credit and clean development mechanism set up under UNFCCC be maintained even through there has been a massive slide in the value of carbon credit?
Drought has been recognized as a disaster in view of its party expense, temporal duration, slow onset and lasting effect on various vulnerable sections. With a focus on the September guidelines from the National disaster management authority, discuss the mechanism for preparedness to deal with the El Nino and La Nina fallouts in India.
Environmental impact assessment studies are increasingly undertaken before project is cleared by the government. Discuss the environmental impacts of coal-fired thermal plants located at Pitheads.
To what factors can the recent dramatic fall in equipment costs and tariff of solar energy be attributed? What implications does the trend have for the thermal power producers and the related industry? What quantum leaps can help preserve the river Ganga better than incremental inputs?
Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degradation and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry; agroforestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
Principle of ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.
All questions in word limit [ marks questions] Explain the characteristics of ecological succession. Discuss the method of conserving biodiversity for sustainable development.
Man-induced famines are becoming more common than nature-induced ones. Discuss an account of the nature of biosphere as an ecosystem. Give a critical account of reasons and consequences of marine pollution.
Discuss environmental and economic problems associated with coal production. Explain how eco-tourism, activities could be important livelihood options in the Himalayan and North-Eastern regions of the country Why has agro and social forestry has failed to achieve its objectives?
Suggest the measures of wild-life conservation with reference to extinction of rare species. Types of endemic plants and their degree of vulnerability to extinction.
What are the characteristics that make CHC [Chlorinated hydrocarbons] a serious threat to the ecosystem?Atlantic Ocean, body of salt water covering approximately one-fifth of Earth’s surface and separating the continents of Europe and Africa to the east from those of North and South America to the west.
The ocean’s name, derived from Greek mythology, means the “Sea of . (thesubscriptLstandsforlowpass).Others[Tzipermanetal., ] have used this 12 month filter F on Nino index time series, but no name was given to this quantity. "The climate system is particularly challenging since it is known that components in the system are inherently chaotic; there are feedbacks that could potentially switch sign, and there are central processes that affect the system in a complicated, non-linear manner.
Scientific method is an organized and systematized effort to gain knowledge that uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain nature or natural phenomenon.
Gmail is email that's intuitive, efficient, and useful. 15 GB of storage, less spam, and mobile access. The Definition of El Niño Kevin E. Trenberth National Center for Atmospheric Research,* Boulder, Colorado ABSTRACT A review is given of the meaning of the term “El Niño” and how it has changed in time, so there is no universal for the whole phenomenon is “El Niño.”.