Saul McLeod updated The immune system is a collection of billions of cells that travel through the bloodstream. They move in and out of tissues and organs, defending the body against foreign bodies antigenssuch as bacteria, viruses and cancerous cells.
Stress, Immunity, and Health: Research Findings and Implications. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation.
Vol 15 1 Abstract A wealth of research indicates that psychological stress suppresses various parameters of immune functions and consequently can cause diseases. Various studies suggests that the nature of stressor acute or chronic may have differential impact upon the immune functioning, with brief acute stress enhancing some parameters of immunity whereas chronic stress adversely affecting almost all parameters of immune functions.
Stress and immune functions are mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal HPA axis and the autonomic sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
In addition, there is a possibility of behavioral pathways such as alcohol intake, sleep disturbances through which stress affects immune functions. This paper is an attempt to review various research linking stress, immunity and health.
Major theoretical models explaining the conceptual link between stress and immunity are introduced. Further, the pathways through which stress impacts upon immune system and ultimately health are addressed.
Finally, implications of stress and immunity research for therapeutic interventions are discussed. Stress, Immunity, Health, Psychoneuroimmunology, meta-analysis, review Introduction: The interest in the study of relationship between emotional states and disease has a long history.
In the second century A. He made a distinction between diseases caused by organic reasons and emotional reasons. However, it is only recently, this field has received increased attention from researchers. The term psychoneuroimmunology was coined by Robert Ader, who accidentally found that immune system could be classically conditioned.
In an experiment of classical conditioning of rats, Ader and Cohen fed rats with saccharin while injecting a drug that caused stomach upset. As a result, mice learned to avoid the saccharin.
An additional side effect of the drug was that it suppressed immune system. When the experiment was repeated without the injection of drug to reverse the aversion, they found high proportion of the rats died when receiving saccharin alone. This led them to hypothesize that, by classical conditioning saccharin alone suppressed the immune system enough to kill the rats.
This experiment indicated that signals from nervous system can affect immune system.Stress has an impact on our health through its effects on our immune system. Learn how our immune system is affected by stress, and what we can do to combat those effects.
The meta-analysis also revealed that people who are older or already sick are more prone to stress-related immune changes. For example, a study by Lyanne McGuire, PhD, of John Hopkins School of Medicine with Kiecolt-Glaser and Glaser reported that even chronic, sub-clinical mild depression may suppress an older person's immune system.
that requires extensive analysis, planning, and decision-making, such as absorbing the technical medical infor-mation about our cancer diagnosis.
On the contrary, research has shown that both very low and very high levels of the stress hormones from the adrenal gland Stress and the Immune System.
"The immune system's ability to regulate inflammation predicts who will develop a cold, but more importantly it provides an explanation . its effects on oxidative stress and immune system parameters remain unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of a passive cycle ergometer on the immune system and oxidative stress in critical patients.
knowledge about psychological stress and the human immune system through meta-analysis.
Both the construct of stress and the human immune system are complex, and both could consume book-length reviews.